The townland is the smallest and most ancient of Irish land divisions and is the goal of all family researchers in identifying the origin of their ancestors. The townland was named at an early period and they usually referred to a very identifiable landmark in the local area such as a mountain, a bog, an oak forest, a village, a fort or a chruch. The townland became standardised as a basic division in the 17th century surveys by people with little knowledge of the Irish language. As a consequence many place names were either lost or had their meaning or construction altered. The townland spellings at present, were the same used by the Ordnance Survey from the 1830’s onwards. This means the townland spelling in records collected before this time, such as the tithe books, are very varied.
To 1898 the civil parish was the major administrative division. The two great surveys of the 19th century – the Tithe assessment and the Griffiths Valuation – were compiled on a civil parish basis with the head of the household only listed by their townland address (unless it was a larger Town, rather than the smaller Townland,there were no streets or street numbers in what you would think of as an ‘address’).
A word about Towns vs Townlands -
One of the confusing things that the Government of this era let happen, was that the “towns” for the most part really had no legal status. That is, no government function. They were just built-up areas. Therefore, you can’t really look for “Ballylongford Town” on the Griffiths Valuation and find anything. There might be as many as half a dozen townlands which contain the areas that comprise the term ‘Town of Ballylongford’ or ‘Castleisland’ or whichever.
Note: After 1898 the principle administrative division for Irish records became the Poor Law Union/ Registration Districts.
|Killorglin Parish, Munster Province|
|Coornagrena & Goulnacappy||816||Dunkerron N||Cahersiveen||61|
|Glancuttaun Lower||1,124||Dunkerron N||Cahersiveen||60|
|Glancuttaun Upper||897||Dunkerron N||Cahersiveen||65|
|Goulnacappy & Coornagrena||816||Dunkerron N||Cahersiveen||63|
|Kilcoolaght East||182||Dunkerron N||Killarney||56|
|Kilcoolaght West||413||Dunkerron N||Killarney||55|
|Shannera Lower||829||Dunkerron N||Cahersiveen||59|
|Shannera Upper||709||Dunkerron N||Cahersiveen||66|
* Indicates a townland in Killorglin according to: “General Alphabetical Index to the Townlands of Ireland” 1851, but is not on the map. The information we have available is modeled after the Inner City Trust Maps, based on the Ordnance Survey completed in 1846.
Behind each Townland/Parish name, there is a meaning. For example; Ardmoneel – ‘the height of the neck’. We have attempted to translate the meanings of all the Townlands/Parishes for Killorglin.
- ANGLONT – ‘the sunny place’
- ANNADALE -‘wife of the dale’ (the term wife in this instance means the wife of Blennerhassett who lived in Mount Rivers).
- ARDACLUCKEEN – ‘the height of the little stone fort/ little hills’
- ARDMONEEL – ‘the height of the neck’
- BALLINTLEAVE -‘the town of the mountain’
- BALLYKISSANE – ‘pass/passage town of Kissane’
- BALLYMACPRIOR -‘townland of the priest’s son’ (the meaning of this relates to a person who decides to become a priest but then declines to join).
- BANSHAGH – ‘the sheep grazing pasture’
- BREANLEE – ‘foul lee’
- CAPPAGH – ‘the tribe land’
- CASTLECONWAY – ‘named after Jenkin Conway’s Castle Conway’
- CLASH ISLAND – ‘the trench island’
- CLOONCARRIG – ‘the meadow of the rock’
- CLOON ISLAND – ‘meadow island’
- COOLBANE EAST + WEST – ‘the white corner/back’
- COOMNAFANIDA – ‘hollow/deep valley’
- COORNAGRENA AND GOULNACAPPY – ‘Irish name to be confirmed’
- COORNAMEANA – ‘bay/a ring or hoop/ a winding/mine’. The latter word meana means a mine.
- CORBALLY – ‘small round hill/homestead settlement’
- CROMANE UPPER + LOWER – ‘the slope’/’the hip’
- DERRYNAFEANA – ‘grove/oak-grove of the white cow’
- DOOLAHIG – ‘black muddy place’
- DOUGLAS – ‘black stream’
- DROMAVALLY – ‘the ridge of the town’
- DROMIN – ‘the little ridge’
- DROMLEAGH – ‘ridge of the tillage field’
- DUNGEEL – ‘stronghold/fort of the foreigner’
- DUNMANIHEEN – ‘Mannix’s fort’
- FARRANTOREEN – ‘the land of the little bleach green’
- GARRAHADOO – ‘black gardens’
- GARRANE – ‘the shrubbery’
- GLANCUTTAUN – ‘Irish name to be confirmed’
- GLANNAGILLIAGH – ‘the glen of the grouse cocks’
- GORTLAUGHRA – ‘the tilled field of the rushes’
- ILLAUNSTOOKAGH – ‘the island of the stacks or stooks’
- KILCOOLAGHT – ‘corner of the church’
- KILLORGLIN – ‘the church of Lawrence’
- KNOCKAUNGLASS – ‘green hillock’
- KNOCKAUNROE – ‘red hillock’
- KNOCKNABOOLA – ‘the hill of the cattle fold’
- KNOCKYLINE – ‘Irish name to be confirmed’
- LAHARAN – ‘half a townland’
- LISMACFINNIN – ‘earthen fort from the son of Finnin’
- LONART – ‘longphort or fortress’
- LYREBOY – ‘yellow river fork’
- MAGHANCOOSAUN – ‘Irish name to be confirmed’
- MEANUS – ‘mine’ (as in mining)
- MUINGAPHUCA – ‘marsh of the ghosts’
- NANTINAN – ‘the place abounding in nettles’
- OWNNAGARRY – ‘river of the gardens’
- PARKALASSA – ‘the fort field’
- QUAYBAUN- ‘Irish name to be confirmed’
- RANGUE – ‘classroom’
- REEN – ‘the point’
- SCARTNAMACKAGH – ‘the thicket of the tramps’
- SHARERA – ‘Irish name to be confirmed’
- STEALROE- ‘the red strip’
- TINNAHALLY – ‘the house of the cliff’
- TOOREENASLIGGAUN – ‘the bleach green of the shells’
John Joseph “Jack” Doyle (October 25, 1869 – December 31, 1958) was an Irish-American first baseman in Major League Baseball whose career spanned 17 seasons, mainly in the National League. He was born in Killorglin and emigrated to the U.S. when he was a child, his family settling in Holyoke Massachusetts
After attending Fordham University, he embarked on a baseball career that would last 70 years. He made his first appearance at the major league level by signing and playing two years for the Columbus Solons of the American Association. Doyle would play for ten clubs from 1889-1905, batting .299 in 1,564 games with 516 stolen bases. He began as a catcher-outfilder and became a first baseman in 1894. His best years were in 1894, when he batted .367 for the New York Giants, and in 1897, when he hit .354 with 62 stolen bases for the Baltimore Orioles. He is credited with being the first pinch-hitter in pro ball, with Cleveland at Brooklyn on June 7, 1892.
For the 1894 season, he took over the everyday duties at first base and became team captain. Manager John Montgomery Ward not only made the decision to replace his former teammate and friend Roger Connor, but released him as well. Connor was a very popular player, and this decision drew the ire and scrutiny from the fans and media alike. Ward defended his decision, and claimed the move came down to the fact that he liked Doyle’s playing style, describing him as a hustler. Replacing Connor at first base was worth the risk as Jack batted .367 that season, and he totaled 100 runs batted in, and stole 42 bases.
Below; Jack Doyle seen here (5th from left) playing for Cleveland.
Because of his aggressive playing style, Doyle was known as “Dirty Jack,” often feuding with umpires, fans, opposing players, and even, at times, his own teammates. On one occasion, in Cincinnati on July 4, 1900, while in the 3rd inning of the second game of a doubleheader, Doyle slugged umpire Bob Emslie after being called out on a steal attempt. Fans jumped from the stands as the two got into it, and players finally separated the two fighters. Two policeman chased the fans back into the stands and then arrested and fined Doyle. On July 1, 1910, when he was being harassed by a Polo Grounds fan, he jumped into the stands and hit him once with his left hand, re-injuring it after having broken it several weeks earlier.
He carried on a lengthy feud with John McGraw that started when they were teammates at Baltimore. McGraw, of course, had to have the last word. In 1902, McGraw was appointed manager of the Giants, and his first act was to release Doyle, even though he was batting .301 and fielding .991 at the time. Even with these seemingly out-of-control traits, Doyle was deemed a natural leader and was selected as team captain in New York, Brooklyn and Chicago, and served as an interim manager for the Giants in 1895 and Washington Senators in 1898.
Minor league success
In 1905, after playing one game with the New York Highlanders Doyle became manager of Toledo of the Western Association. One year later, in 1906, he was named the manager of the Des Moines Champions, so named because they won the league championship the previous year, and they won it again under Doyle’s helm. Following his championship season at Des Moines, he managed Milwaukee in 1907.
Other career capacities
In 1908–09, the only years of his adult life spent outside of baseball, he served as Police Commissioner of his hometown of Holyoke. Doyle returned to the game as an umpire and worked in the National League for 42 games in 1911. Later on he would join the Chicago Cubs as a scout in 1920. In his many years with the Cubs, Doyle was credited with signing or recommending the acquisition of such stars as Gabby Hartnett, Hack Wilson, Billy Herman, Stan Hack, Bill Jurges, Charlie Root, Bill Lee, Augie Galan, Riggs Stephenson and Phil Cavarretta. He remained in that capacity until his death at age 89 on New Year’s Eve 1958. He was buried at St. Jerome Cemetery in Holyoke.
In the Irish Baseball League, the annual award for best slugger is named “The ‘Dirty’ Jack Doyle Silver Slugger Award.
Above; A portrait of St. Brigid on a stained glass window, St. Joseph’s Catholic Church, Macon, Georgia, 1903.
Saint Brigid of Kildare
Virgin, abbess, inspirer
Saint Brigid of Kildare (Irish: Naomh Bríd; c. 451–525), also known as Brigit of Ireland, is one of Ireland’s patron saints along with Patrick and Columba. Her name is also variously spelled as Brigid, Bridget, Bridgit, Bríd, and Bride and she is sometimes known as Mary of the Gael. Irish hagiography makes her an early Irish Christian nun, abbess, and founder of several monasteries of nuns, including that of Kildare in Ireland, which was considered legendary and was highly revered. Her feast day is the 1st of February, formerly celebrated as the Imbolc quarter-day of the pagan Irish year, which marked the beginning of spring, lambing, lactation in cattle, etc.
In the controversy about the historical existence of Brigid that erupted in the last third of the 20th century, researchers noted that eleven people with whom Brigid is associated in her Lives are independently attested in annalistic sources, sources that place her death at AD 523 (in the Annals of Tigernach and Chronicon Scotorum) and her birth at 451 (calculated from the alleged age of 72 at death).
The differing biographies written by different authors, giving conflicting accounts of her life, are regardedas having considerable literary merit in themselves. Three of those biographies agree that she had a slave mother in the court of her father, Dubhthach, a king of Leinster.
Some scholars suggest that believers syncretised St Brigid with the pagan goddess Brighid. According to medievalist Pamela Berger, ” Christian monks took the ancient figure of the mother goddess and grafted her name and functions onto her Christian counterpart.”
Birth and early life;
Brigid may have been born in Dundalk, County Louth, Ireland. Because of the legendary quality of the earliest accounts of her life, there is much debate among many secular scholars and even faithful Christians as to the authenticity of her biographies. According to her biographers her parents were Dubhthach, a Pagan chieftain of Leinster, and Brocca, a Christian Pict and slave who had been baptized by Saint Patrick. Some accounts of her life suggest that Brigid’s father was in fact from Lusitania, kidnapped by Irish pirates and brought to Ireland to work as a slave, in much the same way as Saint Patrick. Many stories also detail Brigid and her mother’s status as pieces of property belonging to Dubhthach, and the resulting impact on important parts of Brigid’s life story.
The Vita outlined Brigid’s early life. It says that Brigid’s mother was a slave, and Brigid herself was born into slavery to a druid. From the start, it is clear that Brigid is holy. Before a name had been given to the infant, Dubthach dreams of three clerics baptizing her. One of the clerics told her father, “Let Brigid be your name for the girl”. When the druid tries to feed her, she vomits because he is impure. Dubhthach recognizes his impurity and finds a white cow with red ears to sustain her instead. As she grows older, Brigid performs many miracles, including healing and feeding the poor. Saint Brigid is celebrated for her generosity to the poor. According to one tale, as a child, she once gave away her mother’s entire store of butter. The butter was then replenished in answer to Brigid’s prayers.
Above; St. Brigid’s Cross
Commitment to Religious Life;
The ceremony was performed, according to different accounts, by one or the other of the bishops Mel (d. 487) or Mac-Caille (d. c.489), the location probably being in Mág Tulach (the present barony of Fartullagh Co. Westmeath). Mel also granted her abbatial powers. She followed Saint Mel into the Kingdom of Teathbha, which is made up of sections of modern Meath, Westmeath and Longford. This occurred about 468. According to some sources, Brigid was ordained bishop by Bishop Mel at Mag Tulach, and her successors have always been given Episcopal honour.
Brigid’s small oratory at Cill-Dara (Kildare) became a center of religion and learning, and developed into a cathedral city. She founded two monastic institutions, one for men, and the other for women, and appointed Saint Conleth as spiritual pastor of them. It has been frequently stated that she gave canonical jurisdiction to Saint Conleth, Bishop of Kildare, but, as Archbishop Healy points out, she simply “selected the person to whom the Church gave this jurisdiction”, and her biographer tells us distinctly that she chose Saint Conleth “to govern the church along with herself”. Thus, for centuries, Kildare was ruled by a double line of abbot-bishops and of abbesses, the Abbess of Kildare being regarded as superior general of the monasteries in Ireland.
Brigid also founded a school of art, including metal work and illumination, over which Conleth presided. The Kildare scriptorium produced the Book of Kildare, which elicited high praise from Giraldus Cambrensis, but which has disappeared since the Reformation. According to Giraldus, nothing that he had ever seen was at all comparable to the book, every page of which was gorgeously illuminated, and he concludes by saying that the interlaced work and the harmony of the colours left the impression that “all this is the work of angelic, and not human skill”.
There is evidence in the Trias Thumaturga for Brigid’s stay in Connacht, especially in County Roscommon and also in the many churches founded by her in the Diocese of Elphin. Her friendship with Saint Patrick is attested by the following paragraph from the Book of Armagh: “inter sanctum Patricium Brigitanque Hibernesium columpnas amicitia caritatis inerat tanta, ut unum cor consiliumque haberent unum. Christus per illum illamque virtutes multas peregit”. (Between St. Patrick and Brigid, the pillars of the Irish people, there was so great a friendship of charity that they had but one heart and one mind. Through him and through her Christ performed many great works.)
Miracles Associated With Brigid;
Miracles during Brigid’s lifetime were commonly recorded by those who had witnessed them or had some relation to a person who had. In Saint Brigid’s case, most of her miracles were related to healing and domestic tasks usually attributed to women. If Brigid wished or predicted something to occur then it came to pass.
One of the more commonly told stories of St. Brigid was when she went to the King of Leinster to ask for land to build a convent. She told the king that the place where she stood was the perfect place for a convent. It was beside a forest where they could collect firewood and berries. There was also a lake nearby that would provide water and the land was fertile. The king laughed at her and refused to give her any land. Brigid prayed to God and asked him to soften the king’s heart. Then she smiled at the king and said “will you give me as much land as my cloak will cover?” The king thought that she was joking and because Brigid’s cloak was so small he knew that it would only cover a very small piece of land. The king agreed and Brigid spread her cloak on the ground. She asked her four friends to hold a corner of the cloak and walk in opposite directions. The four friends walked north, south, east and west. The cloak grew immediately and began to cover many acres of land. The king was astonished and he realised that she had been blessed by God. The king fell to the ground and knelt before Brigid and promised her and her friends money, food and supplies. Soon afterwards, the king became a Christian and also started to help the poor and commissioned the construction of the convent. Legend has it, the convent was known for making jam from the local blueberries which was sought for all over Ireland. There is a new tradition beginning among followers of St. Brigid to eat jam on the 1st of February in honour of this miracle.
She is associated with the preservation of a nun’s chastity in unusual circumstances. Some authors claim that it is an account of an abortion. Both Liam de Paor (1993) and Connolly & Picard (1987), in their complete translations of Cogitosus, give substantially the same translation of the account of Brigid’s ministry to a nun who had failed to keep her vow of chastity, and become pregnant. In the 1987 translation:
A certain woman who had taken the vow of chastity fell, through youthful desire of pleasure and her womb swelled with child. Brigid, exercising the most potent strength of her ineffable faith, blessed her, causing the child to disappear, without coming to birth, and without pain. She faithfully returned the woman to health and to penance.
Veneration In Ireland;
In modern Ireland, “Mary of the Gael” remains a popular saint, and Brigid remains a common female Christian name.
Shrines and Relics;
It seems that Faughart was the scene of her birth. Faughart Church was founded by Saint Moninne in honour of Brigid. The old well of Brigid’s adjoining the ruined church still attracts pilgrims.
At Armagh there was a “Templum Brigidis”; namely the little abbey church known as “Regles Brigid”, which contained some relics of the saint, destroyed in 1179, by William FitzAldelm.
Brigid was interred at the right of the high altar of Kildare Cathedral, and a costly tomb was erected over her “Adorned with gems and precious stones and crowns of gold and silver.” Over the years her shrine became an object of veneration for pilgrims, especially on her feast day, the 1st of February.
About the year 878 AD, owing to the Scandinavian raids, Brigid’s relics were taken to Downpatrick, where they were interred in the tomb of Patrick and Columba. The relics of the three saints were discovered in 1185, and on the 9th of June of the following year were reinterred in Down Cathedral.
Above; The three major Irish Saints.
The church of St Joao Baptista at Lumiar near Lisbon airport in Portugal holds a relic claimed to be the skull of St Brigid. A fragment of this skull was brought to St Brigid’s Church, Kilcurry in 1905 by Sister Mary Agnes of the Dundalk Convent of Mercy and in 1928 another fragment was sent by the Bishop of Lisbon to St Brigid’s church in Killester, in response to a request from Fathers Timothy Traynor and James McCarroll.
In liturgical iconography and statuary, Saint Brigid is often depicted holding a reed cross, a crozier of the sort used by abbots and a lamp (called a “lamp of learning and wisdom”, as lamps and fire were regarded sacred to the Celts and druids). Early hagiographers portray Saint Brigid’s life and ministry as touched with fire. According to P.W. Joyce, tradition holds that nuns at her monastery kept a sacred eternal flame burning there. Light motifs, some of them borrowed from the apocrypha such as the story where she hangs her cloak on a sunbeam, are associated with the wonder tales of her hagiography and folklore. In her Lives, Saint Brigid is portrayed as having the power to multiply such things as butter, bacon and milk, to bestow sheep and cattle and to control the weather. Plant motifs associated with St Brigid include the white Lilium candidum popularly known since medieval times as the Madonna Lily for its association with the Virgin Mary, and the Winflower Anemon coronaria, called the “Brigid anemone” since the early 19th century. Cill Dara (Kildare), the church of the oak Quercus petraea, is associated with a tree sacred to the druids. Her colour, white, was worn by the Kildare United Irishmen during the 1798 Rebellion and is worn by the Kildare GAA team.
Above; St Brigid with the reed cross and a ‘lamp of learning and wisdom’.
Kilbride is one of Ireland’s most widely spread placenames, there are 43 Kilbrides located in 19 of Ireland’s 32 counties: Antrim (2), Carlow, Cavan, Down, Dublin, Galway, Kildare, Kilkenny (3), Laois, Longford, Louth, Mayo (5), Meath (4), Offaly (4), Roscommon (2), Waterford, Westmeath (2), Wexford (4), and Wicklow (8) as well as two Kilbreedy’s in Tipperary, Kilbreedia and Toberbreeda in Clare, Toberbreedia in Kilkenny, Brideswell Commons in Dublin, Bridestown and Templebreedy in Cork and Rathbride and Brideschurch in Kildare. Similarly, there are a number of placenames derived from Cnoic Bhríde (“Brigit’s Hill”), such as Knockbridge in Louth and Knockbride in Cavan.
Not all Kilbride or St Bride’s churches are directly associated with Brigid the daughter of Dubhthach. Seathrún Céitinn’s History of Ireland 1841 edition edited by Dermod O’Connor, lists 14 Saints gleaned from the martyrologies and heroic literature each called Brigid, and not including Brigid of Kildare.
This dizzying abundance of Brigid’s had the effect of confusing those scholars in the 16th and 17th centuries who compiled the calendars from older manuscript sources, many of them now lost. For example John Colgan states Brighit of Moin-miolain was the daughter of Neman in one reference and the daughter of Aidus in another.
The Martyrology of Donegal, for example, lists Brighit daughter of Diomman (feast day the 21th of May), Brighit of Moin-miolain (feast day on the 9th of March), and what may be five more: Brigid the daughter of Leinin (associated with Killiney, feast day the 6th of March), Brighit of Cillmuine (the 12th of November), Brighe of Cairbre (feast day the 7th of January). and two other Brighits (feast days the 9th of March, the second Brigit of that date, and the 30th of Sept).
Veneration beyond Ireland;
Church dedications, artwork, folklore and medieval manuscripts indicate the extent of the cult of Brigid in western Europe.
- Alsace: Devotion to Brigid dates to the 8th century, there are relics of the Saint in the Church of Saint-Pierre-le-Vieux in Strasbourg.
- Belgium: A fragment of a medieval Irish shawl known as “St Brigid’s Mantle” is venerated at the Cathedral of Bruges, where the cultus of Brigid was introduced by its Irish bishop Saint Foillan (died 655). There is a chapel (7th–10th century) dedicated to Sainte-Brigide at Fosses-la-Ville, a church in Liege and an altar in Hesse.
- Brittany: The Church of St. Denis in Saint-Omer is the best known of over thirty church and chapel dedications to Brigid, she is venerated in folklore as midwife to the Blessed Virgin Mary and protectress of cattle. A palton is held at Morimer each year.
- Cologne: four parish churches and seven chapels are dedicated to Brigid and a relic is preserved at the Great St. Martin Church. A church dedicated to St Brigid was destroyed in the Napoleonic period. There was also a chapel dedicated to her in Mainz.
- England: St Bride’s Church in the City of London was rebuilt in 1672.
- Italy: Donatus of Fiesole compiled the metrical Life of Brigid and built a Church in Piacenza (9th century) which was donated to the Irish order of the Monastery of Saint Colombanus, in Bobbio. The Church – and the attached hospital – sheltered predominantly Irish pilgrims moving to Bobbio and on to Rome. It still exists. The cult of Saint Brigid is particularly important in Northern Italy (Piacenza, Como, Val Brembana etc).
- Netherlands: Saint Brigid is the patron saint of the Dutch city of Ommen.
- Portugal: Brigid’s skull, preserved in the Church of São João Baptista in Lumiar, was traditionally venerated on 2th of February and in former times was carried in procession as a sacred instrument in the blessing of children and animals throughout the parish, in a ceremony called the bênção do gado (blessing of the cattle).
- Spain: A cult of Brigid at Olite in Navarre was introduced from Troyes and Picardy in northern France around 1200 and a church is dedicated to her in Seville.
- Switzerland: A sacred flame, the Lumen Sanctae Brigidae, was tended at Liestal in the 13th century and there is a chapel dedicated to her in the city of St. Gallen.
Saint Brigid, in the alternative spelling of her name, Bride, was patron saint of the powerful medieval Scottish House of Douglas. The principal religious house, and Mausoleum of the Earls of Douglas and latterly Earls of Angus being St. Bride’s Kirk, Douglas. Another saint Bridget of Sweden (1303–1373) was given a Swedish variant of the old Irish name named in honour of Brigid.